Punjab the land of five rivers and integrated cultural history, is a treasure trove for an avid tourist. For this land of the great Gurus not only boasts of ancient monuments but throbs with historical embodiments. It is no secret that whoever comes to this land of golden yellow fields with Blue Mountains providing the romantic and picturesque backdrop has never gone back without imbibing the essence of Punjab. There is no dearth of breathtaking places, for Punjab was the seat of royalty, as the imposing Quila Mubarak will tell you. Museums Galore and so are the religious places with the Golden Temple offering soccour to the mind and the soul of anyone visiting. If you are a wild life freak, then Punjab can take you on a tour of sanctuaries, which are hot favorites with the migratory birds. Since the state borders Pakistan, there are two main posts from which you can peep into the land, which was once the integral part of Punjab, and experience the feelings of people separated by a line drawn by mankind.
The much truncated India's portion of present Punjab is divided into three natural regions: The Malwa, The Doaba and The Majha.
Malwa is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers. This Malwa should not be confused with the Malwa Plateau region of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Sikhs of Malwa are known for being great fighters, and warriors during the era of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, and Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The Malwa area makes up majority of the Punjab region consisting 11 districts, and has the most fertile land. Cities such as Ludhiana, and Mohali located in the Malwa region are the richest cities, and are the most expensive places to live in the Punjab State. Ludhiana is the business centre of Punjab and is also referred as the Manchester of Punjab. Also the city is home to Punjab Agricultural University the best in all of Asia. Malwa is also home to many NRI residents mostly from the Ludhiana, Sangrur, Moga, Barnala, and Bathinda districts. Ferozepur, which was the biggest district and a metro city before the division of India and Pakistan, also comes in Malwa region which is famous for its Patriotism as well as Martyrdom and also for the yield of best quality of wheat and paddy in the world. Majority of the Sikh Jats are found in the Malwa region comprising 92% of the population, and rest is broken up between Khartis, Tarkans, and Chamars. The Malwa region has been controlling the political power in Punjab for decades.
Malwa comprises 10(parts of some) of the twenty districts of Punjab. Districts in Malwa include:
- Bathinda, Faridkot, Fatehgarh Sahib, Ferozepur, Ludhiana, Mansa, Moga, Muktsar, Nawan Shahar, Patiala, Ropar, Sangrur.
The people of the region are known as Malwais. The dialect of Punjabi spoken in Malwa is called Malwayis.During the Mughal era, Malwa was known as Sirhind, since it consisted of the city by that name. Sirhind was the headquarters or the Mughal administration in Eastern Punjab. The city was also the headquarters of the Mujaddidiya branch of the Naqshbandiyya Order of Sufism. Malwa, like the rest of the province, was also the scene of many clashes between the Mughals, the Sikhs, the Afghans, the Marathas and the British.
Doaba is the region of Indian Punjab surrounded by the rivers Beas and Sutlej. The name "Doaba" literally translates to "land of two rivers" ("Do" two, "Ab" river; ). It is one of the most fertile regions of the world, and was the centre of the Green Revolution in India. To this day, it remains one of the largest per capita producers of wheat in the world.
The people of Doaba started out as agriculturalists, but have now diversified into education, sports and entrepreneurship. The highly progressive and enterprising population has, in recent years, suffered from demographic upheavals engendered by large scale migration to North America, and female foeticide. Since Doaba consists the largest population of Chamar, there has recently been seeing modernisation in terms of caste discrimination and the so called 'low castes' are advancing. This is seen as a problem by a few people of higher castes who lay their mentality in medieval India. The main reason for rising resentment towards so called lower castes is the reverse discrimination being suffered by so called upper castes. Jalandhar is one of the most famous cities of Doaba. This city has highest density of hospitals in Asia. DAV's first engineering college is also placed at Jalandhar. Highest production of sports material.
Majha is a historical region of the Punjab comprising the modern districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Tarn Taran in the Indian State of Punjab and the districts of Lahore and Kasur in the Pakistani Province of Pakistan. Historically, Majha comprised the older settled parts of the Bari Doab (in particular Sheikhupura) and the Rechna Doab (in particular, Gujranwala), the newer settled parts belonging to the canal colonies. Major towns in the region include Amritsar, Batala, Pathankot, Gurdaspur, Kasur, Sheikhupura and Tarn Taran Sahib. The largest part of Majha called the Bari Doab. It lies between two of the five great rivers of the Punjab: the Ravi and the Sutlej. As such, Majha lies in the heart of the ancient Punjab region. No wonder then, that one meaning of Majha is 'the central plains' or 'the central country'. The people of Majha are known as 'Majhis' or 'Majhis'. The Majhi dialect of Punjabi is the basis of standard Punjabi.
Powadh (or Puadh or Powadha) is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District (Haryana) is Powadhi. The Powadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj up to the Ghaggar river in the east, which separates the states of Punjab and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Powadh. The language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as in Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, and Rajpura are the areas where the Puadhi language is spoken and the area itself is claimed as including from Pinjore, Kalka to Bangar area in Hisar district which includes even Nabha and Patiala in it.
Powadh is a vast region, consisting of all of and Panchkula district in Haryana and Chandigarh and a big area of south east Malwa, consisting of Patiala, Mohali, and Ropar districts. The majority of population is Sikh, and unlike most other areas in Punjab the majority is not Jat. It had its own poets even at Akbar's court such as Mai Banno of Banur and more recently Bhagat Asa Ram Baidwan of Sohana. The Dhadd Sarangi and Kavishri way of singing are said to have originated here only and also different types of Akharas such as that of famous Rabbi Bhaironpuri. Powadh consists only a small quantity of Punjab. The Majha, Malwa, and Doaba make up majority of the Punjab and consist mostly of Sikh Jats.
Compared to Majha (comprising of Amritsar and Gurdaspur and Tarn Taran districts) and Doaba(comprising of Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Kapurthala and Nawanshahr districts), Malwa (comprising Barnala, Bathinda, Faridkot, Firozpur, Fatehgarh Sahib, Ludhiana, Mansa, Moga, Muktsar, Patiala, Sangrur and some parts of Ropar), Powadh comprises the districts of Rupnagar, Mohali,and district around the Ghaggar river and parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district as well as Chandigarh. The people of the region are known as Powadhis. The dialect of Punjabi spoken in powadh is called Powadhi.